The best General Writing tools in 2024

We have tested a variety of General Writing tools and services and selected the best ones for you.

Here we are listing the top 15 General Writing tools that we recommend.

General Writing Use Cases

  • #1

    Automatically generate blog post outlines based on keywords and topics provided

  • #2

    Create SEO-friendly meta descriptions and titles for blog posts to improve search engine rankings

  • #3

    Generate high-quality written content for blog posts on a variety of topics

  • #4

    Optimize existing blog content for SEO by updating keywords, headers, and links

  • #5

    Develop content calendars and scheduling for regular blog updates to drive traffic and engagement

How do AI/LLM writing tools differ from traditional word processors and content creation tools?

AI/LLM writing tools differ from traditional word processors and content creation tools in several key ways. Firstly, they leverage advanced language models that are trained on vast amounts of data to generate human-like text, rather than relying on manual input and formatting. This allows for more intelligent and contextual writing assistance, such as suggestions for word choice, tone, and structure.

Additionally, AI/LLM tools often incorporate intelligent automation features, such as the ability to research topics, generate outlines, and even produce entire drafts of content with minimal manual input. This can significantly streamline the writing and content creation process, allowing writers to focus more on the creative and strategic aspects of their work.

Another key difference is the adaptability and personalization of AI/LLM tools. These tools can learn from a user's writing style and preferences, and adapt their suggestions and outputs accordingly. This can help writers maintain a consistent and cohesive brand voice across their content.

What are some use cases and applications of AI/LLM writing tools in the modern content landscape?

AI/LLM writing tools have a wide range of applications in the modern content landscape. Some of the most common use cases include:

  1. Content Generation: AI/LLM tools can be used to generate initial drafts of articles, blog posts, social media updates, and other types of content, significantly reducing the time and effort required.

  2. Content Optimization: These tools can analyze existing content and provide suggestions for improving things like keyword optimization, readability, tone, and structure.

  3. Personalization: AI/LLM tools can tailor content to the specific preferences and interests of individual readers or customers, enhancing engagement and relevance.

  4. Multilingual Content: AI/LLM tools can be used to efficiently translate content into multiple languages, making it accessible to a global audience.

  5. Workflow Automation: AI/LLM tools can be integrated into content creation workflows to automate tasks like research, outlining, and formatting, streamlining the overall content production process.

  6. Creative Ideation: Some AI/LLM tools can be used to generate innovative ideas, story concepts, and creative angles for content, sparking inspiration for writers and content creators.

What are some of the potential challenges and limitations of using AI/LLM writing tools in content creation?

While AI/LLM writing tools offer numerous benefits, there are also some potential challenges and limitations to consider:

  1. Accuracy and Reliability: Although these tools are highly advanced, they can still produce inaccurate or inconsistent information, especially when dealing with complex or specialized topics. Careful review and fact-checking is often necessary.

  2. Lack of Nuance and Creativity: AI/LLM tools may struggle to capture the nuances of human language and creative expression, potentially resulting in content that feels generic or lacking in personality.

  3. Ethical Considerations: The use of AI/LLM tools in content creation raises ethical questions around issues like plagiarism, data privacy, and transparency regarding the use of AI-generated content.

  4. Integration and Workflow Challenges: Seamlessly integrating AI/LLM tools into existing content creation workflows can be a complex and time-consuming process, requiring careful planning and implementation.

  5. Cost and Resource Requirements: Accessing and effectively utilizing advanced AI/LLM writing tools often requires significant financial and technical resources, which may be a barrier for some organizations or individual creators.

How can content creators and marketers best leverage AI/LLM writing tools to enhance their content strategies?

Content creators and marketers can leverage AI/LLM writing tools to enhance their content strategies in the following ways:

  1. Integrate Strategically: Carefully evaluate which AI/LLM tools align best with your content goals and workflows, and integrate them in a way that complements your existing processes.

  2. Maintain Human Oversight: While AI/LLM tools can be highly valuable, it's crucial to maintain human oversight and review to ensure accuracy, quality, and alignment with your brand voice and messaging.

  3. Experiment and Iterate: Continuously experiment with different AI/LLM tools and features, and be prepared to adjust your approach based on the results. This will help you find the optimal balance between automation and human creativity.

  4. Upskill Your Team: Invest in training and education for your content creators and marketers, so they can effectively leverage the capabilities of AI/LLM tools and understand their limitations.

  5. Prioritize Transparency: Be transparent about the use of AI/LLM tools in your content creation process, and communicate this clearly to your audience to build trust and credibility.

  6. Combine with Other Content Strategies: Integrate AI/LLM writing tools with other content marketing best practices, such as keyword research, audience targeting, and performance analysis, to create a holistic and effective content strategy.

  1. InterStand Chrome AI Reading Assistant

InterStand Chrome AI Reading Assistant

InterStand Chrome AI Reading Assistant is an AI-powered tool that enhances text comprehension and understanding, enabling users to keep up with technological advancements in an efficient and effective manner.

Enhances Text Comprehension: The AI-powered reading assistant helps users better understand complex text and emerging concepts, empowering them to keep up with technological advancements.

Easy to Use: The Chrome extension is designed to be user-friendly, allowing for seamless integration into the browsing experience.

Free to Try: Users can try the InterStand Chrome AI Reading Assistant for free, making it accessible to a wide range of individuals and businesses.

Comprehensive Solution: The product goes beyond simple translation, providing a more robust set of features to deepen users' understanding of languages and new ideas.

Potential Privacy Concerns: As an AI-driven tool, the product may raise concerns about data privacy and the handling of user information.

Limited to Chrome Browser: The product is currently only available as a Chrome extension, which may limit its accessibility for users who prefer other web browsers.

Potential Learning Curve: Some users may require a adjustment period to fully utilize the features and capabilities of the AI reading assistant.

Subscription-based Pricing: The product may have a subscription-based pricing model, which could be a barrier for some users on a tight budget.

  1. SpeedProof: One-Click AI Text Edit

SpeedProof: One-Click AI Text Edit

SpeedProof: One-Click AI Text Edit is a Chrome extension that allows you to quickly rephrase, check grammar, translate, explain, and summarize text on any web page with a single click, using the power of ChatGPT.

One-Click AI Text Editing: SpeedProof allows you to easily rephrase, translate, summarize, and check the grammar of any text with just a single click, making it a highly efficient tool for daily tasks.

Seamless Integration: The extension seamlessly integrates with your browser, allowing you to access its powerful features directly from the page you're working on.

Versatile Functionality: SpeedProof offers a wide range of text editing capabilities, including grammar checking, summarization, translation, and rephrasing in various tones of voice, catering to diverse needs.

Instant Results: The AI-powered text editing features provide instant results, saving you time and effort in polishing your written content.

Positive User Feedback: The extension has received positive reviews from users, who have found it to be a convenient and helpful tool for their daily work and tasks.

Reliance on AI: As an AI-based tool, SpeedProof's performance is dependent on the accuracy and capabilities of the underlying language model. This could lead to occasional errors or suboptimal results in some cases.

Privacy Concerns: Some users may have concerns about the privacy implications of using an AI-powered tool to process their text, especially if sensitive information is involved.

Limited Customization: The extension may not offer extensive customization options, which could be a drawback for users who prefer a higher degree of control over the text editing process.

Potential Learning Curve: While the one-click interface is designed to be user-friendly, some users may still need to invest time in understanding the tool's full capabilities and how to effectively utilize its features.

  1. Our Party Wall

Our Party Wall

Our Party Wall is a platform that helps homeowners and neighbors navigate the process of creating party wall agreements. It provides an easy-to-use solution to generate all the required documents, without the need for a costly party wall surveyor.

Save up to £1000: Don't waste money on an unnecessary party wall surveyor. Join the 1000s of people every year who handle their own party wall agreements.

Simple Process: Party wall agreements can sound complicated but in their most simple form they are just an agreement between neighbours about how and when building work will be carried out.

Automated Documents: Generate all the required documents in just 15 minutes from the comfort of your own home.

AI-powered Support: Get answers to your questions about party wall agreements with the AI-powered chat service.

Potential Neighbor Disputes: Handling the party wall agreement process yourself may lead to disputes with your neighbors if not done properly.

Legal Complexities: While the process may seem simple, there are still legal complexities involved in party wall agreements that require careful consideration.

Lack of Professional Guidance: Without the assistance of a party wall surveyor, you may miss important steps or make mistakes in the agreement process.

  1. Whitespark


Whitespark is a local SEO tools, software, and citation services provider that helps businesses drive more local customers through better Google visibility and ranking.

Comprehensive Local SEO Tools: Whitespark offers a suite of powerful tools, including the Local Platform, Local Rank Tracker, Local Citation Finder, and Reputation Builder, to help businesses optimize their local search presence.

Proven Track Record: Whitespark has a reputation for delivering results, with case studies showcasing significant improvements in ranking visibility, ad spend reduction, and increased sales for their clients.

Customized Services: Whitespark provides tailored services, including SEO, Listings, Yext Replacement, and Enterprise-level solutions, to meet the unique needs of small businesses, agencies, and multi-location enterprises.

User-friendly Platform: The Whitespark Local Platform allows users to manage all their Google Business Profiles from a single, centralized location, streamlining local search management.

Excellent Customer Support: Whitespark is known for its personalized and attentive customer service, ensuring clients receive the support they need to succeed in local search.

Pricing: While Whitespark's services are competitively priced, the overall cost of the software and services may be a barrier for some small businesses with limited budgets.

Learning Curve: Depending on the user's familiarity with local SEO, the software and services offered by Whitespark may require some time and effort to fully understand and utilize effectively.

Limited Free Tools: Whitespark's free tools, such as the Review Checker and Google Review Link Generator, are useful but may not provide the full scope of functionality that some users are seeking.

  1. is an online platform that allows users to create and share text snippets, code snippets, and other types of content. It provides features like syntax highlighting, folder organization, and customizable settings to help users manage and share their pastes effectively.

Easy to Use: provides a simple and user-friendly interface for quickly creating and sharing text pastes, making it easy for anyone to use.

Syntax Highlighting: The platform offers a wide range of syntax highlighting options, allowing users to format their code snippets or text for better readability and presentation.

Versioning and Editing: Users can edit their pastes after creation, and keeps track of the version history, making it easy to revert changes or access previous versions.

Collaboration and Sharing: makes it easy to share pastes with others, either by providing a direct link or embedding the paste on a website or forum.

Trending and Archived Pastes: The platform provides access to trending and archived pastes, allowing users to discover and explore content created by the community.

Limited Storage: may have limitations on the size or duration of pastes, which could be a concern for users with larger code snippets or long-term storage needs.

Potential Privacy Concerns: As a public platform, may not be the best choice for sharing sensitive or confidential information, as the content is accessible to anyone with the link.

Lack of Advanced Features: While provides basic paste functionality, it may lack more advanced features found in other code-sharing or collaboration platforms, such as real-time collaboration, version control, or project management tools.

Potential Abuse or Misuse: As with any public platform, could be subject to abuse or misuse, such as the posting of malicious content or the sharing of copyrighted material without permission.


Affinda is an AI-powered document processing platform that can read, understand, and extract data from any document type. The platform combines advanced computer vision, natural language processing, and deep learning technologies to provide highly accurate and efficient document processing solutions for businesses across various industries.

Accurate Resume Parser: Affinda's resume parser is claimed to be the most accurate on the market, leveraging advanced AI and ML techniques to extract data from resumes with high precision.

Document-Agnostic: Affinda's platform can process a wide range of document types, from invoices and receipts to passports and birth certificates, making it a versatile solution for businesses.

Seamless Integration: Affinda's platform can integrate seamlessly with existing business ecosystems, enabling efficient document processing workflows.

Multilingual Support: Affinda supports over 50 languages, making it suitable for global businesses and organizations.

Diverse Use Cases: Affinda's document AI platform can be applied to various industries and use cases, from recruitment to compliance and accounting.

Continuous Improvement: Affinda's models are constantly being improved to reduce errors and enhance the accuracy of document processing.

Expert Support: Affinda's customer support team are AI experts who helped build the company's AI tools, providing unmatched expertise and assistance.

Iron-Clad Security: Affinda has dedicated teams focused on continuously improving data security and operational standards, ensuring the safety of client data.

Limited Free Trial: Affinda's free trial may not provide a comprehensive evaluation of the platform's capabilities, as it may have limited features or processing volume.

Pricing Transparency: The website does not clearly outline Affinda's pricing structure, which may make it difficult for potential customers to assess the cost-effectiveness of the platform.

Customization Limitations: While Affinda claims to offer custom solutions, the extent to which the platform can be tailored to specific business needs may not be fully apparent from the website information.

Reliance on AI: As an AI-powered platform, Affinda's performance is dependent on the accuracy and reliability of its AI models, which may be a concern for some users who prefer more traditional document processing methods.

  1. Famy - AI For Education (Gemini Pro)

Famy - AI For Education (Gemini Pro)

Famy - AI for Homework (Gemini Pro) is an AI-powered educational app that provides a comprehensive suite of features to supercharge your learning experience. It offers solutions to questions, text summarization, paraphrasing, skill-building games, and personalized career recommendations, all powered by cutting-edge artificial intelligence technology.

Accurate Solutions: Powered by cutting-edge artificial intelligence, Famy AI delivers accurate solutions and recommendations with unmatched precision.

Efficient Learning: Famy AI's streamlined tools simplify complex tasks and accelerate your learning journey, saving you time and effort.

Versatile Assistance: Famy AI adapts to the needs of students, professionals, and lifelong learners, supporting your educational goals across various subjects and domains.

Comprehensive Features: Famy AI offers a wide range of features, including question solving, text summarization, text paraphrasing, skill improvement games, and personalized career recommendations.

Limited Platform Compatibility: Famy AI is currently only available for iOS and macOS devices, which may limit its accessibility for users with other operating systems.

Potential Privacy Concerns: The app may collect and link various types of user data, including purchases, contact information, and usage data, which could raise privacy concerns for some users.

Subscription-based Model: While the app is free to download, some advanced features or functionalities may require a subscription, which could be a barrier for users on a tight budget.

  1. AI论文初稿写作-学境思源



Streamlined AI-Assisted Writing: The platform provides an AI-powered solution to generate detailed outlines for your academic papers, saving you time and effort in the writing process.

Comprehensive Coverage: The platform supports a wide range of academic subjects, from philosophy to medicine, ensuring you can find tailored assistance for your specific needs.

Privacy and Security: The platform prioritizes the protection of your paper's privacy and security, using secure storage and encryption technologies to safeguard your work.

Formatting Guidance: The generated paper templates provide a solid formatting foundation, allowing you to focus on the content rather than the layout.

Potential Plagiarism Concerns: While the platform emphasizes that the generated content is for reference only, there is a risk of inadvertent plagiarism if the content is not properly attributed or integrated into your own work.

Limited Customization: The platform may not offer the level of customization you require, as the generated outlines and templates may not fully align with your specific research goals or writing style.

Potential Reliance on AI: Overreliance on the AI-generated content could limit your own critical thinking and writing skills development, potentially hindering your academic growth.

Temporary Storage: The platform only retains the generated content for 24 hours, which may be a concern if you need to access the information for an extended period or if you encounter any technical issues during the download process.

  1. Journi


Journi is a platform that empowers tour guides to create and share immersive audio tours, allowing travelers to explore cities through the eyes and voices of local experts. The app offers GPS-guided tours, personalized recommendations, and a marketplace for unique cultural experiences.

Empowers Tour Guides: Journi provides an intuitive platform for tour guides to create and sell their own immersive audio tours, helping them reach a global audience.

Enhances Storytelling: The platform offers a comprehensive toolbox for tour guides to incorporate photos, voiceovers, and AI-enhanced content, transforming their insights into memorable journeys.

Boosts Tour Sales: The analytics dashboard allows tour guides to track revenue, evaluate tour performance, and use feedback to enhance their offerings, increasing reach and engagement.

Personalized Experiences: Journi leverages AI to deliver personalized recommendations and insights, tailoring each cultural journey to the traveler's interests for an unforgettable exploration.

Commissions-free for the First Year: Journi offers tour guides a special welcome gift of zero commission fees for the first year, allowing them to keep more of their earnings.

Limited Tour Availability: The platform may initially have a limited selection of tours, as it relies on tour guides to create and publish their content.

Dependence on Internet Connectivity: Travelers may need a stable internet connection to access the app and download tours, which could be a limitation in certain areas.

Potential Language Barriers: While Journi offers tours in multiple languages, travelers may still face language barriers in some destinations, limiting the accessibility of the platform.

Ongoing Commission Fees: After the first year, tour guides will be subject to the standard fees for transactions through the Play Store or App Store, which could impact their earnings.

Learning Curve for Tour Guides: The platform's tools and features may require some time for tour guides to learn and become proficient in, potentially delaying the creation and publishing of their tours.

  1. Chamberly


Chamberly is a mobile app designed to provide a safe and supportive environment for users to express themselves, connect with others, and find emotional support when needed.

Easy Venting: Chamberly provides a platform for users to express themselves and be heard, helping to alleviate feelings of loneliness and depression.

Safe Environment: The app's proprietary algorithm detects high-risk search terms and phrases, ensuring a safe and judgment-free environment for users.

Community Support: Chamberly allows users to create and discuss topics they care about, connecting them with like-minded individuals who can provide support and understanding.

Privacy Concerns: While the app claims to prioritize security and privacy, users may still have concerns about the safety of their personal information and discussions.

Potential for Misinformation: Without proper moderation, the platform may be susceptible to the spread of misinformation or harmful content.

Dependency Risks: Overreliance on the app for emotional support may lead to unhealthy coping mechanisms or a lack of real-world social connections.

  1. Groq Summarizer

Groq Summarizer

Groq Summarizer is a powerful tool that helps users quickly and efficiently summarize lengthy articles, providing a simple solution to information overload. The tool offers instant summarization, multilingual support, custom API key configuration, and blazing-fast speeds powered by the Groq API, ensuring a secure and private experience.

Instant Summarization: Groq Summarizer quickly analyzes and summarizes lengthy articles, saving you time and effort.

Multilingual Support: The tool works across multiple languages, making it accessible to a global audience.

Custom API Key Configuration: Users can configure their own API keys, allowing for personalized usage and integration with other systems.

Blazing Speeds with Groq API: The tool leverages the Groq API to provide lightning-fast summarization, ensuring a seamless user experience.

Secure and Private: Groq Summarizer prioritizes user privacy and security, ensuring that your information remains confidential.

Limited Customization Options: The tool may have a limited set of customization options, potentially restricting users who require more advanced or specialized features.

Dependency on Groq API: The tool's performance and reliability are directly dependent on the Groq API, which could potentially introduce some risk if the API experiences downtime or issues.

Learning Curve: Some users may find the initial setup and configuration process to be slightly more complex, requiring a learning curve before fully utilizing the tool's capabilities.

Potential for Inaccurate Summaries: While the tool aims to provide accurate summaries, there may be instances where the summarization algorithm fails to capture the essence of the original content accurately.

  1. RecurseChat


RecurseChat is a SAAS product that enables users to chat with a local Large Language Model (LLM) offline and privately, without the need for complicated setup. It allows users to chat with PDF, markdown, and text files locally, with blazingly fast full-text search capabilities, and the ability to import ChatGPT history to continue conversations with a local AI.

Local first. Offline capable. No config setup.: Chat with Local LLM, offline and private. No need for complicated setup or internet connection.

Chat with PDF and markdown, completely offline. RAG made simple.: Chat with PDF, markdown and text files locally, offline, and remarkably fast. Retrieval Augmented Generation using local embedding model and local vector database.

Full Text Search. Blazingly fast search over thousands of messages.: Quickly search through all your chat history with blazingly fast full text search.

Import ChatGPT history. Continue chats with local AI.: Seamlessly import your ChatGPT history and continue your conversations with a local AI model.

Chat with multiple models in one chat session.: Easily switch between different AI models within the same chat session.

Multi-modal input. Chat with images using LLaVA model.: Engage in multimodal chat, including images, using the LLaVA model.

Secure and private. Secured by macOS App Sandbox. Chat privately.: Your data and conversations are kept secure and private, with no need to upload anything to the cloud.

Customizable appearance and AI character. Use your own GGUF.: Personalize your experience by customizing the AI's appearance and personality, including using your own GGUF model.

Limited to macOS platform: RecurseChat is currently only available as a macOS application, limiting its accessibility to users on other operating systems.

Potential performance limitations with larger datasets: While the application boasts blazingly fast search and retrieval, users with extremely large chat histories or document collections may experience some performance issues.

Lack of cloud-based synchronization: Since RecurseChat is a local-first application, users may miss out on the convenience of cloud-based synchronization of their chat history and settings across multiple devices.

Potential compatibility issues with custom GGUF models: While the ability to use custom GGUF models is a pro, users may encounter compatibility issues or challenges in integrating their preferred models.

  1. Tattoo Canvas

Tattoo Canvas

Tattoo Canvas is a platform that allows users to create and share custom tattoo designs. It provides a user-friendly interface for designing, uploading, and sharing tattoo artwork.

Customizable Designs: Tattoo Canvas allows customers to create their own unique designs and have them printed on high-quality canvas.

Durable and Long-Lasting: The canvas material used is durable and resistant to fading, ensuring the tattoo design lasts for years.

Versatile Display Options: Tattoo Canvas can be displayed in various ways, such as framed or unframed, making it suitable for different home and office decor styles.

Affordable Alternative to Tattoos: For those who want the look of a tattoo without the permanent commitment, Tattoo Canvas provides a more affordable and reversible option.

Limited Size Options: Tattoo Canvas may only be available in a limited range of sizes, which may not suit all customer needs or preferences.

Shipping Costs: Depending on the location and size of the Tattoo Canvas order, shipping costs may be a consideration for some customers.

Potential Quality Concerns: As an online service, there may be concerns about the quality of the printed canvas or the overall customer experience.

Lack of Personalization: While customers can create their own designs, the level of personalization may be limited compared to a custom-made tattoo.

  1. Reel2Recipe


Reel2Recipe is a SAAS tool that allows users to instantly convert their favorite cooking videos into detailed recipes. By simply pasting the video URL, the platform generates the ingredients list and step-by-step instructions, making it easy to recreate the dishes.

Instant Recipe Creation: Easily convert your favorite cooking videos into recipes with just a few clicks, saving time and effort.

Versatile Compatibility: Works with a wide range of video platforms, allowing you to access recipes from various online sources.

Visual Learning: The ability to follow along with the video while having the recipe steps and ingredients readily available can enhance the cooking experience.

Expanded Recipe Discovery: Discover new recipes by exploring the video library, broadening your culinary horizons.

Dependence on Video Quality: The accuracy of the recipe conversion may be affected by the quality and clarity of the original cooking video.

Limited Customization: Users may have limited options to modify or customize the generated recipes to suit their personal preferences.

Potential Licensing Issues: Depending on the video content, there may be concerns around copyright and licensing restrictions for using the recipes.

Potential Inaccuracies: The automated conversion process may occasionally result in minor inaccuracies or omissions in the recipe details.

  1. TLDR: Summarize Tool

TLDR: Summarize Tool

TLDR: Summarize Tool is a free browser extension that automatically summarizes articles, blogs, and papers with one click. It utilizes advanced AI technology to extract the key information and provide concise summaries, saving users time and cognitive effort when navigating through online content.

Instant Results: Get the gist of any text in a flash.

Simplified Mode: Say goodbye to complicated words and hello to clarity.

Translated Summaries: Language barriers? Not a problem. TLDR breaks them down effortlessly.

Time-Saving: Streamlines your reading experience, enabling you to efficiently digest intricate information.

Dependency on AI Accuracy: The quality of the summaries generated depends on the accuracy of the underlying AI technology, which may not always be perfect.

Limited Context: The summaries provided may lack the full context and nuance of the original content, which could be important in certain situations.

Potential Oversimplification: In an effort to provide concise summaries, the tool may oversimplify complex topics, potentially missing important details.

Subscription Required for Updates: To support future updates and development, users may need to subscribe, which could be an ongoing cost.

Example of General Writing Tools


Confab is a product that provides users with conversation starters and topics to help them never run out of things to say, regardless of the situation.

Get Worksheet

Get Worksheet is a platform that provides free printable worksheets for various grade levels. It allows users to discover a wide range of educational resources, from worksheets on all about me to missing number, letter, and shape tracing activities, all designed to fuel curiosity and support learning.


Surfed is a history and bookmark manager for Safari. It helps users organize their browsing history and favorite websites, making it easier to find and revisit previously visited pages.


In conclusion, the General Writing tools listed above are the best in their class. They offer a wide range of features and functionalities that cater to different needs and preferences. Whether you're looking for a tool to streamline your workflow, enhance your productivity, or drive innovation, these tools have got you covered. We recommend exploring each tool further, taking advantage of free trials or demos, and gathering feedback from your team to make an informed decision. By leveraging the capabilities of these cutting-edge tools, you can unlock new opportunities, drive growth, and stay ahead in today's competitive landscape.